PLUMBING SYSTEMS

Section 6 to 6-7
January 1972

We have attempted to keep your plumbing system as simple as possible, especially where thru-hull fittings are concerned. Wherever possible water discharge is above the waterline and where two items can use a common below waterline thru-hull, this is accomplished What follows then is a general description of the plumbing system, followed by a detailed Plumbing Diagram of your boat. You should become quite familiar with this system and constantly check it over to keep fresh water in your tanks and sea water outside of your hull!

In areas where below freezing temperatures are anticipated, the ENTIRE PLUMBING SYSTEM MUST BE DRAINED. It is extremely important for about one quart of a "permanent type" anti-freeze to be pumped into the ENTIRE MARINE TOILET. This is accomplished by removing the hose intake and pumping the anti-freeze through the system until it starts to run out the thru-hull opening. The thru-hull is now closed, the intake hose reattached and your marine toilet has been winterized until recommissioning. The addition of anti-freeze would be a good practice with other accessories where water may sit or collect during a freeze.

6-1 THRU-HULLS AND THRU-HULL VALVES

All below the waterline thru-hull fittings are equipped with GATE VALVES. These valves turn CLOCKWISE to CLOSE and COUNTER CLOCKWISE to OPEN. When leaving your boat for extended periods of time, safe practice dictates closing ALL of the valves EXCEPT those for the COCKPIT SCUPPERS. periodically open and close these valves to make sure they are working properly. At this time also check all valves for seepage or leaks, tighten any hose clamps that might be getting loose and replace any defective hoses. It is a good idea to open any GATE VALVE all the way and then close the valve a quarter turn. In this manner, anyone can immediately tell if a valve is open or not. Open valves are sometimes broken by people trying to pry them further open, thinking they are closed.

We cannot over emphasize the importance of these fittings, as fiberglass hulls with heavy keels don't float too well when filled with sea water.

6-2 FRESH WATER TANKS

A standard, fiberglass, fresh water tank is located amidships, thus keeping weight out of the bow, which improves the sailing characteristics of your boat. Care must be taken so that the AIR VENT HOLE in the FILLER CAP or the VENT TUBE (whichever is fitted) is not plugged or it will be impossible to pump water from this tank.

When the optional additional fresh water tank is installed it will normally be located under the forward berth, with the same type fill-cap as the standard tank and with its own vent. Where the discharge lines for the two tanks come together there will be a "T" with a labeled lever type cut-off valve for each tank. Normally the bow tank would be kept empty except when fitted for periods of extended living aboard. In this case, use the bow tank FIRST, and then switch to the standard tank. Be sure to keep only the valve controlling the tank you are using OPEN and the other one CLOSED.

6-3 GALLEY

6-3.1 FRESH WATER HAND PUMP AND SINK

This high-out-put, lever-type pump has a ball check valve to hold the vacuum on the return stroke. If the pump fails to operate after three or four strokes, first check the water tank and the air vent hole in the filler cap. Tank FULL and vent CLEAR? If difficulty is still experienced, disconnect the intake hose at the pump and blow through to the tank to clear any possible blockage. Also check the hose as it could be kinked or have some heavy object squashing it closed. If the hose is clear and the pump still does not deliver water, disassemble the pump and look for particles blocking the internal check valve.

The stainless steel sink drains to a thru-hull directly below with its gate valve. In hard sailing conditions, when the boat is well heeled over and the sink is on the LEE SIDE, keep this valve CLOSED or the sink may fill and water could be splashed into the interior.

6-3.2 SALT WATER HAND PUMP

This optional pump operates the same way as the fresh water pump, but there are two schools of thought as to where the intake should be located. A serious racing skipper wants fewer holes in the bottom so he'll tie it into the sink drain while the more practical cruising man will have it on its own thru-hull! Since it's your option, you'll know where it is! DON'T tie into the engine cooling water intake. This will let air into the engine cooling system and cause the engine to overheat.

6-3.2 ICE BOX

Your icebox is insulated with a three inch, foamed-in-place, layer of polyurethane foam and should retain low temperatures over extended periods of time. SINCE THE ICE BOX DRAINS INTO THE BILGE, IT IS ADVISABLE TO CHECK THE BILGE BEFORE AND AFTER ALL OUTINGS.

In order to get the ice box as large as possible, the lower portion, and the drain, is BELOW the waterline. Thus it is not possible to drain to a thru-hull. Please remember that when a 25 pound block of ice melts you end up with about three gallons of water in the bilge.

6-4 HEAD

6-4.1 HEAD SINK

The situation here is the same as the GALLEY SINK (6-3.1), EXCEPT that both the LEVER VALVE and the Marine Toilet intake VALVE must be open for drainage.

6-4.2 MARINE TOILET

Please be sure to read the "HEAD OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS" mounted on the bulkhead. For your convenience we will repeat these instructions here:

 HEAD OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE USING

Make sure both thru-hull valves under the sink are open and that the lever valve below sink is closed. Raise lever forward of pump handle and pump slowly to partly fill and wet inside of bowl.

AFTER USING

Raise lever and pump until bowl is cleaned. Continue with at least 15 more full strokes to flush discharge anti-syphon loop. Depress lever and pump slowly until bowl is empty. Turn lever valve under sink to open position so sink can drain.

IMPORTANT

WHEN NOT IN USE, LEVER ON HEAD FORWARD OF PUMP HANDLE
MUST BE LEFT IN DEPRESSED POSITION TO PREVENT FLOODING
OF BOAT. WHEN LEAVING BOAT FOR AN EXTENDED PERIOD IT
IS ADVISABLE TO CLOSE BOTH THRU-HULL VALVES. DO NOT PUT
ANYTHING THAT HASN'T BEEN EATEN OR TOILET PAPER IN THE
BOWL AS THE VALVES CAN BE EASILY PLUGGED.

The SMALLER valve is the water INTAKE and HEAD SINK DRAIN, while the LARGER serves for DISCHARGE. The LEVER VALVE installed in the head sink drain hose MUST BE CLOSED when operating the toilet to assure an adequate water supply for flushing. Thus, to drain the head sink, this valve, and the INTAKE gate valve must be open.

It is possible to leave the two gate valves open while sailing, provided the internal "Joker" rubber check valve is not held open by refuse, and not have any water siphon back into the bowl. In extremely heavy sailing conditions it would be prudent to keep these two valves closed.

Periodically add a small amount of liquid detergent and pump it through the system to lubricate the internal valve mechanism.

6-4.3 HOLDING TANK TOILET (Handihead)

If you have installed the optional Holding Tank Marine Toilet, please follow these instructions as presented by the manufacturer:

OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS

  1. Pour 1 gallon fresh water into toilet thru bowl with trap open and lever on the right side depressed. Close trap and pour 1/2 gallon of water into bowl. The bowl will then be about 3/4 full of fresh water. To this water add one package of Monochem T-5. Depress the trap actuating lever and empty the bowl. Flush the toilet several times by actuating the plastic knob on the left side of the unit with an up and down motion. If the flushing action is weak or spatters, add a little more water. Your toilet is now ready for use.
  2. The bowl trap is operated by the lever on the right side of the unit. To open, press down on lever release and it will close. Most people prefer to take advantage of this built in home-like feature by stroking the pump a few times before using. However, leave the bowl dry while under way.
  3. When the fluid level is within 1/2 inch of the bottom of the bowl opening, the unit is full and should be emptied.

SERVICING INSTRUCTIONS

There are two basic methods of discharge for the Handihead sanitation system. These methods are:

DOCKSIDE DISCHARGE METHOD

  1. Start dockside pump.
  2. When empty, rinse the toilet with fresh water thru the opening in the bowl.
  3. Shut off rinse water.
  4. When unit empty of rinse water, turn off dockside pump.
  5. Recharge with fresh water.

OVERBOARD DISCHARGE METHOD (UTILIZING HAND-O-PUMP)

  1. Open seacock.
  2. Empty toilet by operating Hand-O-Pump.
  3. When empty, rinse the toilet thru the opening in the bowl and fill the toilet with fresh water.
  4. Empty the toilet by operating Hand-O-Pump.
  5. Close thru-hull seacock.
  6. Recharge with fresh water.

IMPORTANT CLEANING PROCEDURE: Where facilities are available, it is best to fill the Handihead with water well into the bowl, and add half cup of cleaner. Flush several times to automatically clean all internal parts. This solution may remain 30 minutes for effective cleaning.

6-4.4 RECIRCULATING HOLDING TANK HEAD SYSTEM (Kracor)

If you have installed the optional recirculating holding tank please follow these instructions as presented by the manufacturer.

OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS

BEFORE USING

  1. Before charging system with chemical, fill your system with clear water and check all connections for leaks; then empty tank with dockside pump.
  2. Charge tank with water and chemical with the amounts shown on the tank name plate.
  3. Raise lever forward of pump handle and pump slowly to partly fill and wet inside of bowl.

AFTER USING

Raise lever and pump until bowl is cleaned. Depress lever and pump slowly until bowl is empty.

DOCKSIDE DISCHARGE

  1. Start dockside pump and empty tank.
  2. Stop pump when empty. Rinse the toilet with fresh water and Kracor "Dissolve" cleaner. Flush into holding tank.
  3. Restart dockside pump and empty tank. Recharge with fresh water and Kracor "KRA-KEM".
  4. Note: Strainer basket in tank may require cleaning. Condition of strainer can be checked by looking through inspection plate

CAUTION: When discharging unit, entire contents as well as rinse water must be emptied at one time. Partial discharge of Handihead contents will cause clogging in discharge line.

LEVEL INDICATOR: When the liquid level reaches the bottom of the rubber flapper in an open position, the toilet is 3/4 full.

We offer one word of caution: WATCH OUT FOR THE BLUE DYE --

DON'T JUST "RELEASE THE LEVER", you must let the lever down

SLOWLY so the flapper valve will close GENTLY or you might

get sprayed by "the blue dye"

Any additional information should be obtained from the manufacturer: Monogram Industries, Inc., 6357 Arizona Circle, Los Angeles, Ca. 90045. Phone 213/776-6720.

6-5 BILGE PUMPS

Every boat should be equipped with at least one MANUAL BILGE PUMP, if for no other reason than to get rid of the melted ice water. If you have this optional pump it is normally mounted in the starboard cockpit seat locker with its discharge out the transom. Just open the hatch and pump!

If offshore cruising and/or racing is planned, then a pump must be mounted that will meet the current requirements of the North American Yacht Racing Union's standards for offshore racing events. This pump is mounted "to be operable with all cockpit seats and hatches and all cabin hatches and companionways closed." The inference here is that the pump must be operable from the cockpit and this makes sense. With a boat load of water, and more expected at any moment, you don't want to be opening hatches or trying to get below to operate a bilge pump! Naturally the latter method is a more expensive installation, but really the only way to go, so this is how it would be mounted at the factory.

The factory installed optional ELECTRIC BILGE PUMP is connected to a switch on your Accessory Control Panel,which in turn is connected to its own Float Switch. In order to have your Electric Bilge Pump operate AUTOMATICALLY, the Master Switch and the Accessory "Bilge Pump" Switch must BOTH be on and water in the bilge must be high enough to raise the float more than two inches.

As with the manual bilge pump, it also discharges out the transom. This is probably the most important safety device you could have on board, for as long as the battery is charged excess bilge water will automatically be pumped overboard.

All factory installed bilge pumps have the pick-up hose strainer base secured to the bilge. There is an inspection plate above this strainer for access, should it become clogged and need cleaning. Also note that the pick-up line is a wire reinforced or 4-ply neoprene hose to prevent collapsing caused by the suction action of the pump. Clear plastic hose is used for the discharge line.

6-6 HOT AND COLD PRESSURE WATER SYSTEM WITH SHOWER

This hot water system is operated either by running the inboard engine or on 110 volt A.C. Shore Power. You will note there is a plug on the hot water tank which must be plugged into the mating connector which connects it to the INTERNAL 110 volt A.C. system through a circuit breaker on the Accessory Control Panel marked "WATER HEATER".

DO NOT TURN ON UNLESS THERE IS WATER IN THE SYSTEM AS THE HEATING ELEMENT WILL BE BURNED OUT IF THE TANK IS EMPTY.

When filling the system for the first time or refilling an empty system, you will have to bleed the air out of ALL WATER LINES. This is accomplished in the following manner.

  1. Fill water tanks and turn ON ship's electrical system.
  2. Turn ON the PRESSURE PUMP by activating the switch on the Accessory Control Panel.
  3. Starting at the Galley Sink, turn ON the HOT WATER FAUCET. Expect nothing but air for the first few minutes as the Hot Water Heater must be filled before water will flow from the faucet.
  4. As the Water Heater approaches full, water will start to pop and spurt from the faucet. Turn the FAUCET OFF.
  5. Now turn the faucet ON and OFF slowly, with one hand under the spout. This will keep water from splashing about while the last bit of air is being removed from the heater and the galley sink hot water lines.
  6. When a solid stream of water is flowing from the spout turn the faucet OFF. The pressure pump will continue to run, and upon reaching about 25 psi will automatically shut off.
  7. Now repeat this same procedure for the Galley Sink Cold Water Faucet, both faucets in the Head, and the Shower.
  8. The system is now completely primed so top off the water tanks to replace the water that is now in the system.

The PRESSURE PUMP is a 12 volt D.C. unit that will start automatically when the pressure drops to 18 psi and will continue running until the pressure has been brought up to 25 psi. If the pump starts running wild:

1.

Out of Water

Fill system or switch tanks

2.

Leak in Lines

Check plumbing

3.

Air Lock

Bleed system.

Heat up time with ELECTRICITY will take about an hour and with engine water temperature at 180ºF., about two hours.

Note that the SHOWER drains into the bilge and the AUTOMATIC BILGE PUMP will operate when the Master Switch and the Accessory Bilge Pump Switch are ON. This will serve as the shower sump pump unless there is a special switch mounted adjacent to the shower for this purpose.

6-7 Plumbing Diagram
(graphic)

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This page last modified November 15, 1999